Extractive metallurgy, however, is a very broad term and most examples in the literature are focused on pyrometallurgy (calcining, roasting, smelting and refining) and hydrometallurgy.
Some examples include:
- Understanding, developing and optimising slag systems for both ferrous and non-ferrous applications
- Modelling interaction between slag and liquid metal and prediction of inclusion formation, partition coefficients, solidus and liquidus temperatures, etc.
- Simulating dephosphorization and desulfurization | Application Example
- Performing relevant heat, mass and thermodynamic calculations for the extraction of base metals
- Calculation of predominance area diagrams (for example, Fe-H2O system)
- Calculation of Pourbaix diagrams for aqueous systems involving complex multicomponent multiphase systems and aqueous solutions
- Simulating steelmaking in processes such as the Basic Oxygen Furnace (BOF) or Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) | Application Example
- Simulating steel refining in processes such as the Ladle Furnace (LF), Vacuum Degasser (VD), Argon Oxygen or Vacuum Oxygen Decarburization (AOD and VOD)