Extractive metallurgy, however, is a very broad term and most examples in the literature are focused on pyrometallurgy (calcining, roasting, smelting and refining) and hydrometallurgy.
Some examples include:
- Understanding, developing and optimising slag systems for both ferrous and non-ferrous applications
- Modelling interaction between slag and liquid metal and prediction of inclusion formation, partition coefficients, solidus and liquidus temperatures, etc.
- Simulating dephosphorization and desulfurization | Application Example
- Performing relevant heat, mass and thermodynamic calculations for the extraction of base metals
- Calculation of predominance area diagrams (for example, Fe-H2O system)
- Calculation of Pourbaix diagrams for aqueous systems involving complex multicomponent multiphase systems and aqueous solutions
- Simulating steelmaking in processes such as the Basic Oxygen Furnace (BOF) or Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) | Application Example
- Simulating steel refining in processes such as the Ladle Furnace (LF), Vacuum Degasser (VD), Argon Oxygen or Vacuum Oxygen Decarburization (AOD and VOD) | Application Example
The Process Metallurgy Module in Thermo-Calc can be used to simulate the entire steelmaking process from scrap to fully refined steel. Several application examples are available that investigate some of the steps in the steelmaking process: