Copper-based alloys

CALPHAD based software and databases allow for accurate calculations of phase equilibria in multicomponent Cu-based alloy systems and provide a useful way to design structure and functional copper-based alloys.

In order to develop Cu-based alloys more efficiently, reliable predications of liquidus, phase fraction, equilibrium and non-equilibrium solidification behaviour, etc., in multi-component systems are required. By using Thermo-Calc and compatible thermodynamic databases, a vast amount of information can be obtained of relevance for multi-component Cu-based alloys.

Examples of what can be predicted:

  • Transformation temperatures, such as liquidus, solidus, etc.
  • Isothermal or vertical section phase diagrams
  • Amount and constitution of equilibrium phases
  • Scheil-Gulliver non-equilibrium solidification paths
  • Thermochemical properties, such as enthalpy, heat capacity, driving force for phase nucleation and growth
  • Thermophysical properties, such as volume, density and thermal expansion


By using the Diffusion module (DICTRA) and combining both thermodynamic and kinetic databases, typical diffusion-controlled phase transformations in Cu-alloys can be simulated.

Further examples using  the Diffusion module (DICTRA):

  • Microsegregation during solidification
  • Homogenization during heat treatments
  • Cooling effects in solidification
  • Growth or dissolution of intermetallic phases


By using the Precipitation module (TC-PRISMA) and combining thermodynamic and kinetic databases, the concurrent nucleation, growth and coarsening of precipitates can be simulated.

Examples related to precipitation modelling using the Precipitation module (TC-PRISMA):

  • Concurrent nucleation, growth/dissolution and coarsening of precipitates
  • Average particle radius and number density
  • Volume fraction and composition of precipitates
  • Nucleation rate and coarsening rate
  • Estimation of multicomponent interfacial energy