Aside from designing new alloys and materials, understanding how to process them and join them is also a critical factor to consider before the new materials can be deployed.

Sometimes, for example in the case of nickel aluminides, there can be a substantial delay in fully deploying these alloys due to the lack of appropriate welding processes and filler wire technologies. Applications related to joining include welding, soldering and brazing. Each of these processes is driven by the underlying thermodynamics, although in most cases they tend to be non-equilibrium in nature, hence kinetic considerations need to be taken into account also.

Watch our webinar: The application of CALPHAD based tools to welding and joining

Watch our video: Thermo-Calc Applications to welding and joining

Examples of applications related to joining include:


  • Liquid – gas equilibrium
  • Liquid – slag equilibrium
  • Inclusion formation
  • Liquid-solid interactions
  • Predicting phases formed during equilibrium and non-equilibrium solidification
  • Microsegregation during solidification using Scheil calculations
  • Prediction of heat affected zone grain boundary liquation
  • Understanding phase stability in the heat affected zone for dissimilar materials and dilution affects
  • Identifying potential filler wire materials
  • Predicting thermodynamic properties such as heat evolved, specific heat latent heat during solidification that can be used as input parameters to welding simulation models.
  • Modelling thermodynamic and phase equilibria of solders, including the potential to form intermetallic compounds


  • Investigating the rate of cooling on the fraction solid curves and micro-segregation during solidification
  • Simulating post-weld heat treatment