Additive Manufacturing

Interest in Additive Manufacturing (AM), also known as three-dimensional printing or layer manufacturing, has increased dramatically in recent years due to its broad range of benefits such as rapid prototyping and free form design.

However, AM is a highly non-equilibrium process and the mechanical properties of these materials are not yet well understood, leading to several potential problems in manufacturing, such as extremely high cooling rates leading to deviation from equilibrium and formation of metastable phases, location-specific thermal history in AM builds and spatial and temporal gradients in temperature.

Thermo-Calc can help users understand the AM process better to address the current problems associated with Additive Manufacturing. 

Watch our webinar: Application of CALPHAD-based Tools to metal additive manufacturing

Examples of applications include:

  • Solidification simulation
  • Phase evolution during heat treatment / post processes and homogenization process
  • Phase transformations as a function of process parameters such as temperature, cooling rate, etc.
  • Predict stable/metastable phase formation during AM
  • Calculate thermodynamic driving forces and interfacial energies for precipitation
  • Precipitation
  • Calculate heat capacity, enthalpy change due to phase change, specific heat, etc.
  • Solid-state phase transformation
  • Materials selection
  • Offer input values for other modelling techniques such as finite element analysis (FEA), phase field modelling, etc. 

Relevant Articles and Presentations

[1]      Cheruvathur, S., Lass E., Campbell, C., E., Additive Manufacturing of 17-4 PH Stainless Steel: Post Processing Heat Treatment to Achieve Uniform Reproducible Microstructure. JOM. 68.3 (2016) 930-942. DOI:

[2]      Hofmann, D.C., Kolodziejska, J., Roberts, S., Otis, R., Dillon, R. P., Suh, J., Liu, Z., Borgonia, J., Compositionally graded metals: A new frontier of additive manufacturing. 29 (2014) 1899-1910. DOI:

[3]      Hofmann, D. C., Roberts, S., Otis, R., Kolodziejska, J., Dillon, R. P., Suh, J., Shapiro, A. A., Liu, Z., Borgonia, J., Developing Gradient Metal Alloys through Radial Deposition Additive Manufacturing. Scientific Reports. 4 (2014) 5357. DOI:

[4]      Keller, T., Lindwall, G., Ghosh, S., Ma, L., Lane, B. M., Zhang, F., Kattner, U. R., Lass, E. A., Heigel, J. C., Idell, Y., Williams, M. E., Allen, A. J., Guyer, J. E., Levine, L. E., Application of Finite Element, Phase-field, and CALPHAD-based Methods to Additive Manufacturing of Ni-based Superalloys. Acta Materialia. (2017) DOI:

[5]      Kenel, C., Leinenbach, C., Influence of Nb and Mo on microstructure formation of rapidly solidified ternary Ti-Al-(Nb, Mo) alloys. Intermetallics. 69 (2016) 82-89.

[6]      Ma, L., Fong, J., Lane, B., Moylan, S., Filliben, J., Heckert, A., Levine, L., Using design of experiments in finite element modeling to identify critical variables for laser powder bed fusion. (2015). Read the full paper.  

[7]      Martukanitz, R., Michalerisa, P., Palmera, T., DebRoya, T., Liua, Z., Otise, R., Heoe, T., W., Chena, L., Toward an integrated computational system for describing the additive manufacturing process for metallic materials. Additive Manufacturing. 1–4 (2014) 52–63. DOI:

[8]      Sames, W. J., List, F. A., Pannala, S., Dehoff, R. R., Babu, S. S., The metallurgy and processing science of metal additive manufacturing. International Materials Reviews. 61 (2016) 315-360.

[9]      Sames, W.J., Unocic, K.A., Dehoff, R.R., Lolla, T., and Babu, S.S., Thermal effects on microstructural heterogeneity of Inconel 718 materials fabricated by electron beam melting. Journal of Materials Research. 29 (2014) 1920-1930.

[10]       Wagner, G. (2015). Computational and Analytical Methods in AM: Linking Process to Microstructure [PDF slides]. See the full presentation