Additive Manufacturing

Interest in Additive Manufacturing (AM), also known as three-dimensional printing or layer manufacturing, has increased dramatically in recent years due to its broad range of benefits such as rapid prototyping and free form design.

However, AM is a highly non-equilibrium process and the mechanical properties of these materials are not yet well understood, leading to several potential problems in manufacturing, such as extremely high cooling rates leading to deviation from equilibrium and formation of metastable phases, location-specific thermal history in AM builds and spatial and temporal gradients in temperature.


Thermo-Calc can help users understand the AM process better to address the current problems associated with Additive Manufacturing. 

Watch our webinar: Application of CALPHAD-based Tools to metal additive manufacturing

Relevant Articles and Presentations: Publications relating to Additive Manufacturing

Examples of applications include:

  • Solidification simulation
  • Phase evolution during heat treatment / post processes and homogenization process
  • Phase transformations as a function of process parameters such as temperature, cooling rate, etc.
  • Predict stable/metastable phase formation during AM
  • Calculate thermodynamic driving forces and interfacial energies for precipitation
  • Precipitation
  • Calculate heat capacity, enthalpy change due to phase change, specific heat, etc.
  • Solid-state phase transformation
  • Materials selection
  • Offer input values for other modelling techniques such as finite element analysis (FEA), phase field modelling, etc.